• Aug 09, 2018 News![CFP] The annual meeting of IJFCC Editorial Board, ICCTD 2019, will be held in Prague, Czech Republic during March 2-4, 2019.   [Click]
  • Aug 09, 2018 News!IJFCC Vol. 6, No. 1-No. 3 has been indexed by EI (Inspec).   [Click]
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General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-3751
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2012-2016); Quarterly (Since 2017)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJFCC
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mohamed Othman
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Cherry L. Chan
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Google Scholar,  Crossref, Electronic Journals LibraryEI (INSPEC, IET), etc.
    • E-mail:  ijfcc@ejournal.net 
Prof. Mohamed Othman
Department of Communication Technology and Network Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJFCC. The journal publishes good papers in the field of future computer and communication. Hopefully, IJFCC will become a recognized journal among the readers in the filed of future computer and communication.
IJFCC 2015 Vol.4(2): 122-125 ISSN: 2010-3751
DOI: 10.7763/IJFCC.2015.V4.369

Identification of Faulty BGA Solder Joints in X-Ray Images

Mohammad S. Laghari and Qurban A. Memon
Abstract—The advantages of X-ray inspection are extensive in scope due to the ability of X-rays to see through packages including heat sinks, welds, encapsulation, and metallic shielding to reveal obscured connections and identify potential quality non-destructive issues. Many assembly line manufacturers rely on real-time X-ray technology to evaluate solder joint integrity for BGAs and other leadless packages that cannot be inspected by conventional vision systems. X-ray inspection is particularly beneficial to applications that involve advanced surface-mount packaging technologies such as Ball Grid Array (BGA) used for integrated circuits. This paper proposes a method that relies on computer vision and image processing techniques that inspects each ball image of a BGA chip and indicates the faulty balls for further assessment. The defective balls that are typically circular change into elongated or elliptical shape. Therefore, it exploits the use of the basic geometric distinction between a circle (perfect soldered ball) and an ellipse or any other shape (ball with reshaped solder joint). A contour analysis method is defined in this paper in terms of the angle changes that occur along the outline profile of a solder joint by moving three equal distant points located on the border. This angle change is plotted to detect the faulty ball joints.

Index Terms—BGA, shape analysis, solder joints, X-ray techniques.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, P. O. Box: 15551, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (e-mail: mslaghari@uaeu.ac.ae, qurban.memon@uaeu.ac.ae).


Cite: Mohammad S. Laghari, Member and Qurban A. Memon, "Identification of Faulty BGA Solder Joints in X-Ray Images," International Journal of Future Computer and Communication vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 122-125, 2015.

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