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General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-3751
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2012-2016); Quarterly (Since 2017)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJFCC
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mohamed Othman
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Cherry L. Chan
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Google Scholar,  Crossref, Electronic Journals LibraryEI (INSPEC, IET), etc.
    • E-mail:  ijfcc@ejournal.net 
Prof. Mohamed Othman
Department of Communication Technology and Network Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJFCC. The journal publishes good papers in the field of future computer and communication. Hopefully, IJFCC will become a recognized journal among the readers in the filed of future computer and communication.
IJFCC 2013 Vol.2(2): 121-125 ISSN: 2010-3751
DOI: 10.7763/IJFCC.2013.V2.134

Latest Approach to Improve the Protection of Embedded Systems by Using PGP Technique

P. Rama Bayapa Reddy, K. Soundararajan, and M. H. M. Krishna Prasad

Abstract—In today’s world of ubiquitous computing, cyber attacks are becoming more virulent, costlier, and larger in scope than ever before. Unlike previous incarnations of hacking, current attacks on computer systems are professionally coordinated, multifaceted, and motivated by the promise of profits on a massive scale. With millions of new electronic devices connecting to the internet every day, hackers are increasingly focused on a new type of target: mobile and embedded systems. Such systems include point-of-sale terminals, wireless routers, smart phones, networked office machines such as printers, and even the utility infrastructure. Pass points scheme is one of the techniques used in Authentication using Graphical Images. In this method, users click on images rather than typing a long and complex alphanumeric password with the computer keyboard. Psychological studies have shown that people can remember pictures better than text. During the time of registration a user may choose several areas (click points) on an image. In order to log in the user has to click close to the chosen click points, e.g. within 0.25cm to 0.50cm from the click point, because users cannot click exactly on the same pixel on which they have clicked at the time of registration. This margin of error around the click point is called Tolerance. Existing Pass points scheme uses a fixed tolerance (say 20X20 pixels) over a number of clicks by the user. But by varying the tolerance (i.e., decrementing the tolerance level) as users click on more points, the information left to an attacker is reduced. We have also introduced multiple graphical passwords approach to counter shoulder surfing attack. Cutting-edge hackers are acutely aware that many of the security procedures and applications in use today have been designed for PC workstations, and are thus unable to thwart attacks on mobile and embedded systems. Smart phones, for example, remain notoriously insecure, yet they are gaining popularity as platforms for exchanging confidential data and conducting financial transactions. Billions of dollars are at risk as people do more and more of their everyday banking and shopping on mobile and wireless devices. Even heart pacemakers have joined the networked world and are now vulnerable to hacking.

Index Terms—Authentication, graphical passwords, multiple passwords, pass points scheme, tolerance.

P. Rama Bayapa Reddy is with the Dept. of CSE, Dhruva Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India (e-mail: . putluru.ramreddy@gmail.com)
K. Soundararajan is with the Department of ECE, JNTUACE, of Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University College of Engineering, Anantapur, A.P, India
M. H. M. Krishna Prasad is with the Dept. of Information Technology University College of Engineering JNTUK–Vizianagaram, A.P, India


Cite: P. Rama Bayapa Reddy, K. Soundararajan, and M. H. M. Krishna Prasad, "Latest Approach to Improve the Protection of Embedded Systems by Using PGP Technique," International Journal of Future Computer and Communication vol. 2, no. 2 pp. 121-125, 2013.

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